What Zimbabwean individuals and companies have been sanctioned by the USA / UK?

Background

In a recent survey by Afrobarometer[i] which examined Zimbabwean citizens’ perceptions about the causes of the country’s economic malaise, most thought that government mismanagement was the main contributing factor, but a surprising 29% thought it was due to economic sanctions imposed by the USA, EU and UK governments.

Clearly the Zimbabwe government-owned state media organisations have done a good job at laying the blame for the poor life chances and continuing poverty of Zimbabweans on the sanctions imposed by foreign governments. In addition there has even been a public holiday proclaimed on a day of protest against sanctions which the government blames for the country's economic problems.

Other Southern African countries have joined calls for the sanctions to be lifted, saying they are damaging the region's economy.

The President of Zimbabwe, Emmerson Mnangagwa, stated: “Sanctions are slowing down our progress, inhibiting our economic recovery and punishing the most vulnerable.”[ii]

These misconceptions are backed up by a number of academic articles such as that written by Thabani Nyoni of the University of Zimbabwe titled The curse is real in Zimbabwe: economic sanctions must go! which states in its abstract: “Zimbabwe’s economic hara-kiri has become so stupendous that it can no longer be addressed without dealing with economic sanctions first. If nothing is done now, Zimbabwe will continue to sink deep down into the sanctions-induced economic doldrums. To set Zimbabwe on a genuine economic recovery path, economic sanctions must be removed first.”

Thankfully most Zimbabweans see that this argument is nonsense as the survey above indicates, but this article will list those sanctioned individuals and entities to illustrate the point that economic sanctions are not aimed at Zimbabwean citizens but targeted at the corrupt actors currently sitting in government.

Why was the Zimbabwe sanctions program implemented by the USA?

They began on 7 March 2003, when President George W. Bush issued Executive Order (“E.O.”) 13288 that imposed sanctions against specifically identified individuals and entities  in Zimbabwe, as a result of the actions and policies of certain members of the Government  of Zimbabwe and other persons undermining democratic institutions or processes in that country.

Subsequent E.O.’s have expanded the list of sanctioned targets to include immediate family members of any person whose property and interests in property are blocked as well as those persons providing assistance to any such individual.[iii]

On 25 July 2008, President Bush issued E.O. 13469 in response to the continued actions and  policies by the Government of Zimbabwe and others to undermine Zimbabwe’s democratic processes or institutions, as manifested in the fundamentally undemocratic election held on  27 June 2008 and acts of violence and other human rights abuses against political opponents.

Who goes on the list of sanctioned persons or entities?

  • Senior  officials  of  the Government  of  Zimbabwe
  • Entities owned or controlled by, directly or indirectly, by the Government of  Zimbabwe or an official or officials of the Government of Zimbabwe:
  •  
  • Who have been engaged in actions or policies to undermine Zimbabwe’s democratic  processes or institutions, 
  • Been responsible for, or have participated in, human rights abuses related to political repression in Zimbabwe,
  • Been engaged in, or have engaged in, activities facilitating public corruption by senior officials of the Government of Zimbabwe, 
  • Be a spouse or dependent child of any person whose property and interests in property are blocked, or an immediate family member of any person whose  property and interests in property are blocked,  
  • Have materially assisted, sponsored, or provided financial, material, logistical, or  technological support to the Government of Zimbabwe, any senior official or  any  person blocked; or
  • Be owned, controlled, or acting on behalf of any person blocked.[iv]  

United States financial and travel restrictions currently apply to 93 individuals, including President Emmerson Mnangagwa. However, some of those listed are dead, including ex-President Robert Mugabe and others have been removed through political circumstances from Zimbabwe, including Jonathan Moyo, Savior Kasukuwere, Patrick Zhuwao and others demoted from office such as Didymus Mutasa.

There are also 56 companies or organisations listed below facing restrictions because they are owned or controlled by the individuals or government.

"We have sanctions against certain individuals and certain corporations… not against the country of Zimbabwe. There is nothing to stop US businesses from investing in Zimbabwe, from going to Zimbabwe," says US Assistant Secretary of State on African Affairs Tibor Nagy.

EU sanctions against Zimbabwe

The European Union (EU) has renewed its two-decades-old, targeted sanctions against Zimbabwe, citing continued human rights violations and closure of the democratic space.

After ex-President Robert Mugabe was toppled in a military coup in 2017, his successor President Emmerson Mnangagwa pushed for normalisation of ties with the EU, but this is yet to bear fruit. The EU on Monday 21 February 2022 said the situation in Zimbabwe has not changed under President Mnangagwa, hence the move to extend the sanctions embargo.

“The situation in terms of respect for human rights has not improved in Zimbabwe…

Intimidation of political opposition and other government critics has continued to restrict the democratic and civic space, which is under threat of shrinking further through the Data Protection Act and ongoing legislative processes such as the Private Voluntary Organisations Amendment Bill and the envisaged so-called Patriotic Act. The EU is concerned about these developments.”[v]

The majority of individuals and entities have over the nearly two decades been removed from the EU sanctions list, however the three remaining individuals: Vice-President Constantino Chiwenga, former First Lady Grace Mugabe and military chief Philip Valerio Sibanda have now had their financial and travel bans lifted. Zimbabwe Defence Industries (ZDI) remains on the list.

The EU stated it would continue to closely follow developments, with a particular attention to the human rights situation and was ready to review and adapt the whole range of its policies accordingly.

Why Zimbabwe Defence Industries remains on the EU sanctions list

Vusumuzi Chirwa, a Zimbabwean political analyst said the renewal of sanctions was expected since the government has not addressed conditions that attracted them. “With anti-human rights bills like the PVO Amendment Bill being proposed and drafted, it was obvious that sanctions were going to be renewed.”

Sipho Nyoni, another political analyst, believes sanctions against the ZDI were extended for another year owing to human rights abuses that “continue to grow.”

Our security forces haven’t really helped the situation; they have instead more or less become an institution of dishonour and more than anyone they have tainted the image of this country through violence at every period and interval before and even after the Covid-19 era…These sanctions won’t be lifted anytime soon because we happen to have an army that thinks it is an appendage of a certain political party and so is open to use by it, in order to suit or fulfil personal agendas. From time to time, you will get the military and government turning on their very own people using that institution which is meant to protect them and hence it can only attract sanctions from the international community.”

UK sanctions against Zimbabwe

Five Zimbabwean individuals (four of whom are also on the U.S. list) and one entity (also on the U.S. list) are currently subject to UK financial sanctions.

Who is currently under U.S. sanctions in Zimbabwe?

Since 2003, the U.S. Department of the Treasury has imposed targeted financial sanctions against individuals and entities in connection with undermining democracy, human rights abuses, or public corruption.

Similarly Zimbabwe is currently subject to EU and UK financial sanctions which are targeted

at individuals, companies and organizations, or restrict trade on key goods such as arms, diamonds, oil, timber and certain services. There are also travel restrictions and diplomatic constraints imposed on the named subjects who are listed at the end of the article.

Zimbabwe is blessed with many resources, including well-educated and hard-working people. It’s not sanctions that are holding the country back, but corruption and lack of reform from a ZANU-PF government

The US Ambassador Brian Nichols argues that with its: “abundant mineral resources, rich farmlands, ideal weather, stunning national parks, and a well-educated, industrious people, Zimbabwe should be the economic powerhouse and the breadbasket of southern Africa, and even more popular as a tourist destination and business investment opportunity.”[vi]

The Ambassador emphasises that it is not economic sanctions holding Zimbabwe back, as there are just the below designated persons and their entities that are on the sanctions list. “They are on the list for good reason. These are people who have engaged in corruption, committed human rights abuses, and undermined Zimbabwe’s democratic process. Blaming sanctions is a convenient scapegoat to distract the public from the real reasons behind Zimbabwe’s economic challenges – corruption, economic mismanagement, and failure to respect human rights and uphold the rule of law.”[vii]

“The greatest sanctions on Zimbabwe are the limitations the country imposes on itself. Zimbabwe is ranked 160 out of 175 nations on Transparency International’s corruption list. Zimbabwe loses more than US$1 billion per year to corruption.[viii] That’s huge compared to the size of Zimbabwe’s entire economy – around US$26 billion. The government says fighting corruption is a priority, but have government and government-connected perpetrators been held accountable? No. If the country’s laws were evenly applied and enforced, government coffers would be full and the economy would be humming; tax revenue and foreign exchange would not leak from the treasury, and government would recover some of the money that has made a privileged few extremely wealthy. It’s not sanctions, it’s corruption.”

Actual examples of corrupt practices carried out by Zimbabwe’s government

Ambassador Nichols lists the following examples:

Command agricultural subsidies

More than US$2.8 billion has gone missing from command agricultural subsidies. The Standard newspaper in 2020 called it a ‘free-for-all circus.’[ix] The author wrote: “All you have to do is to fill out a simple form and produce your national identity card to the bored Agritex officer in your area. If you are too busy too travel, never mind. Someone will do it for you and even do your signature for you.

You just need to lie that you are a smallholder commercial farmer with so many hectares of land that you want to put under maize or some such crop that you can pronounce without much difficulty. Not too many questions asked. Who you know or claim to know is your qualification. After that, you must just find a small truck, claim your "loaned" seed, fertiliser and other agrochemicals and find the next roadside to vend your loot. That's how it is, as easy as ABC.

This is how things have been happening in the last three or so years when the command agriculture scheme was revived. There are no worries about explaining how you used the inputs and equipment next season when the scratched record is played over again. No one is caring about keeping records and that's how things must be.”

The Ambassador continued: The money missing from the agricultural subsidies could help many Zimbabweans in need. Who has benefited? Where is the accountability? The government should be working to get this money back into its coffers. It’s not sanctions, it’s graft.

Dema Power plant

An American firm won the tender for the construction of the Dema Power plant in 2016, but the government cancelled the contract and awarded it to Sakunda Holdings, which had not even placed a bid.

This type of corruption damages Zimbabwe’s reputation and drives away investors who want to be sure the rules apply to everyone. It’s not sanctions, it’s dishonest dealings.

The Zimbabwe National Road Administration (ZINARA)

Around US$25 million has gone missing. How many roads could ZINARA have repaired with this money? How much clean water could have been provided? It’s not sanctions, it’s stunning mismanagement.

The Zimbabwe Electricity Distribution Company (ZETDC)

This company, a subsidiary of Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA), paid US$4.9 million to Pito Investments for transformers in 2010. The transformers were never delivered. Other payments were allegedly made for gas and coal but never delivered. Corruption is at the heart of why Zimbabweans are suffering through prolonged power outages. It’s not sanctions, it’s a betrayal of the public trust.

The Zimbabwe School Examinations Council (ZIMSEC)

The Council paid US$3.1 million for a printing machine in 2016. ZIMSEC then failed to pay a balance of US$1.3 million, which delayed the machine’s delivery and commissioning. As a result, ZIMSEC had to later pay approximately US $2.2 million to outsource the printing of examinations in 2017. How many textbooks or computers could the Ministry of Education have purchased with the lost US$2.2 million and funds tied up in an incomplete purchase? It’s not sanctions; it’s dereliction of duty.

The Civil Aviation Authority of Zimbabwe

The Authority was described in its auditor’s report as insolvent but paid for furniture at the JM Nkomo International Airport in Bulawayo that was never delivered.

Taxpayer’s funds are being diverted into ZANU-PF pockets

The government allocates taxpayer funds for goods and services that are never delivered because the very same funds are disbursed into someone’s private account. These people are getting rich, many of them Zimbabwe’s political elites, as the economy continues to deteriorate around them and the Zimbabwean people suffer from crippling shortages of food, electricity, clean water, and medicine. It’s not sanctions, it’s unmitigated greed.

Political violence is state organised

Many citizens have been arrested, the subject of rape and sexual assault and died during mass protests. Witnesses allege that Zimbabwe Republic Police (ZRP) or military officers from the Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) were the offenders carrying out state-sanctioned violence.

Americans are not barred from trading with Zimbabwe

There is no U.S. trade embargo on Zimbabwe. American companies are interested in investing in Zimbabwe, but are deterred by the massive levels of corruption, economic uncertainty, and weak rule of law. Investors have turned to other more promising opportunities in the region and wait for the country to embrace the political and economic reforms that would make it a more attractive destination.

There is trade between the USA and Zimbabwe, but as the graph below illustrates, it has been steadily declining in value.

Zimbabwe’s economic crisis gets worse

Zimbabwe's economy has faced deep economic crises over the past few years with periods of hyperinflation rendering the local currency worthless, as well as severe shortages of fuel, power and water.

Is there hope of lifting sanctions against Zimbabwe in the future?

The EU statement on 21 February 2022 gives a very clear message to the Zimbabwe government about future prospects.

The measures in place are targeted and very limited, therefore they do not affect the people of Zimbabwe, its economy, foreign direct investments, or trade. Zimbabwe continues to benefit from duty free and quota free access of its exports to the EU, while negotiations are ongoing to deepen the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement.

There is significant potential in terms of investments and jobs opportunities, if structural bottlenecks were to be addressed, and political and economic reforms, including enhancing trust in the rule of law, tackling corruption and respect for human rights, are implemented.

The EU reiterates its readiness to support credible and sustainable economic and political reforms, based on tangible commitments made by the Government of Zimbabwe.

The EU will continue to support the people of Zimbabwe focusing on three priority areas as aligned with Zimbabwe’s National Development Strategy:

(i)   good governance and citizens’ rights

(ii)   green economic growth

(iii)   social recovery and human development. The EU commits itself to enhancing common efforts on addressing climate change on the basis of the Zimbabwean and EU commitments at COP26. The EU will continue to support the Zimbabwean people with humanitarian assistance, in case of need.

The EU follows closely the electoral agenda in Zimbabwe and stands ready to continue its support to electoral reforms – an important pillar to strengthen democracy – based on the recommendations of the 2018 EU Election Observation Mission. The EU is preparing for a follow up mission. Moreover, the EU welcomes the reassurances given by the authorities of Zimbabwe that they will be inviting international electoral observers for the 2023 elections including an EU Election Observation Mission.

As an integral element of its engagement with Zimbabwe, the EU looks forward to having a political dialogue in Harare as a matter of priority and notes the readiness of both sides to organize this dialogue in the near future. The political dialogue will provide an opportunity for regular and open discussions, on many subjects, including on economy and human rights. The political dialogue is key in fostering mutual understanding and constructive cooperation, paving the way for progress in our relations.[x]

Conclusion

Targeted sanctions are not responsible for Zimbabwe falling tragically short of its potential. The fault lies in catastrophic mismanagement by those in power (i.e. ZANU-PF) and the government’s abuse of its own citizens.

There is no reason why Zimbabwe should not achieve prosperity and peace for all its citizens. To get there, the government should fulfil its promises of upholding the rule of law, fighting corruption, respecting human rights, and fully implementing Zimbabwe’s 2013 Constitution. Progress on these goals is the path forward to prosperity and deeper engagement with the international community.

 

Individuals on US sanctions list

  

1

BONYONGWE, Happyton Mabhuya; DOB 06 Nov 1960; POB Chikomba District, Zimbabwe;

 

nationality Zimbabwe; Director General, Central Intelligence Organization

2

BUKA, Flora; DOB 25 Feb 1968; Minister of State for Special Affairs, Land and

 

Resettlement Program (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

3

CHAPFIKA, David; DOB 07 Apr 1957; Passport ZL037165 (Zimbabwe); Deputy Minister

4

CHARAMBA, George; DOB 04 Apr 1963; Passport AD001255 (Zimbabwe); Permanent

 

Secretary, Zimbabwean Ministry of Information and Publicity (individual)

5

CHARUMBIRA, Fortune Zefanaya; DOB 10 Jun 1962; Member of Parliament & Central

 

Committee Member (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

6

CHIHOTA, Phineas; DOB 23 Nov 1950; Deputy Minister of Industry and International

 

Trade (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

7

CHIHURI, Augustine; DOB 10 Mar 1953; Passport AD000206 (Zimbabwe); Police

 

Commissioner (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

8

CHIMUTENGWENDE, Chenhamo Chakezha Chen; DOB 28 Aug 1943; Passport ZD001423

 

(Zimbabwe); alt. Passport AN288614 (Zimbabwe); Minister of State for Public and

 

Interactive Affairs (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

9

CHINAMASA, Gamuchirai, 2 Honeybear Lane, Borrowdale, Zimbabwe; DOB 11 Nov 1991;

 

Passport AN634603 (Zimbabwe); Child of Patrick Chinamasa (individual)

10

CHINAMASA, Monica: Spouse of Patrick Chinamasa (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

11

CHINAMASA, Patrick, 6B Honeybear Lane, Borrowdale, Zimbabwe; DOB 25 Jan 1947;

12

CHIWENGA, Constantine Gureya; DOB 25 Aug 1956; Passport AD000263 (Zimbabwe); Lt.

 

General, Commander of Zimbabwe Defence Forces (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

13

CHIWESHE, George; DOB 04 Jun 1953; Chairman of Zimbabwe Electoral Commission

14

CHIWEWE, Willard, Private Bag 7713, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB 19 Mar 1949;

 

Masvingo Provincial Governor (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

15

CHOMBO, Ignatius Morgan; DOB 01 Aug 1952; Passport AD000500 (Zimbabwe); Minister

 

of Local Government, Public Works and National Housing (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

16

DAMASANE, Abigail; DOB 27 May 1952; Deputy Minister for Women's Affairs, Gender

 

and Community Development (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

17

GOCHE, Nicholas Tasunungurwa; DOB 01 Aug 1946; Minister of Public Works, Labour

 

and Social Welfare (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

18

GONO, Gideon; DOB 29 Nov 1959; Passport AD000854 (Zimbabwe); Governor of the

 

Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

19

GONO, Hellin Mushanyuri; DOB 06 May 1962; Passport AN548299 (Zimbabwe); Spouse

 

of Gideon Gono (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

20

GUMBO, Aleck Rugare Ngidi, Montrolse Farm, PO Box 1175, Gweru, Zimbabwe; DOB 08

 

Mar 1940; Minister of Economic Development (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

21

HUI, Samo (a.k.a. JINGHUA, Xu; a.k.a. KING, Sam; a.k.a. KYUNG-WHA, Tsui; a.k.a.

 

LEUNG, Ghiu Ka; a.k.a. MENEZES, Antonio Famtosonghiu Sampo; a.k.a. PA, Sam); DOB

 

28 Feb 1958; nationality China; citizen Angola; alt. citizen United Kingdom;

 

Passport C234897(0) (United Kingdom) (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

22

JINGHUA, Xu (a.k.a. HUI, Samo; a.k.a. KING, Sam; a.k.a. KYUNG-WHA, Tsui; a.k.a.

 

LEUNG, Ghiu Ka; a.k.a. MENEZES, Antonio Famtosonghiu Sampo; a.k.a. PA, Sam); DOB

 

28 Feb 1958; nationality China; citizen Angola; alt. citizen United Kingdom;

 

Passport C234897(0) (United Kingdom) (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

23

KASUKUWERE, Savior, 78 Enterprise Road, Chisipite, Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB 23 Oct

 

1970; Deputy Minister for Youth Development and Employment Creation & Deputy

 

Secretary for Youth Affairs (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

24

KECHIK, Mahmood Awang, Ampang Puteri Specialist Hospital, 1, Jalan Mamanda 9,

 

Selangor Darul Ehsan 68000, Malaysia; DOB 22 Aug 1954; nationality Malaysia;

 

citizen Malaysia; Dr. (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

 

LEUNG, Ghiu Ka; a.k.a. MENEZES, Antonio Famtosonghiu Sampo; a.k.a. PA, Sam); DOB

 

28 Feb 1958; nationality China; citizen Angola; alt. citizen United Kingdom;

26

KYUNG-WHA, Tsui (a.k.a. HUI, Samo; a.k.a. JINGHUA, Xu; a.k.a. KING, Sam; a.k.a.

 

LEUNG, Ghiu Ka; a.k.a. MENEZES, Antonio Famtosonghiu Sampo; a.k.a. PA, Sam); DOB

 

28 Feb 1958; nationality China; citizen Angola; alt. citizen United Kingdom;

 

Passport C234897(0) (United Kingdom) (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

27

LANGA, Andrew; DOB 13 Jan 1965; Deputy Minister of Environment and Tourism

28

LEUNG, Ghiu Ka (a.k.a. HUI, Samo; a.k.a. JINGHUA, Xu; a.k.a. KING, Sam; a.k.a.

 

KYUNG-WHA, Tsui; a.k.a. MENEZES, Antonio Famtosonghiu Sampo; a.k.a. PA, Sam);

 

DOB 28 Feb 1958; nationality China; citizen Angola; alt. citizen United Kingdom;

 

Passport C234897(0) (United Kingdom) (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

29

MACHAYA, Jaison Max Kokerai; DOB 13 Jun 1952; Member of Parliament for Gokwe

30

MADE, Joseph Mtakwese; DOB 21 Nov 1954; Passport AN000144 (Zimbabwe); Minister

 

of Agriculture (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

31

MADZONGWE, Edna; DOB 11 Jul 1945; Deputy Speaker of Parliament (individual)

32

MALINGA, Joshua; DOB 28 Apr 1944; Deputy Secretary for Disabled and

 

Disadvantaged (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

33

MANYONDA, Kenneth, 6 Speke Avenue, Murambi, Mutare, Zimbabwe; DOB 10 Aug 1934;

 

Central Committee Member (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

34

MARUMAHOKO, Rueben, 11 Douglas Clark Avenue, The Grange, Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB

 

04 Apr 1948; Deputy Minister for Home Affairs (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

35

MASUKU, Angeline; DOB 14 Oct 1936; Matabeleland South Provincial Governor &

 

Politburo Secretary for Gender and Culture (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

36

MATANGA, Godwin; DOB 05 Feb 1962; Passport ZL042663 (Zimbabwe); Deputy Police

 

Commissioner (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

37

MATHEMA, Cain; DOB 28 Jan 1948; Bulawayo Provincial Governor (individual)

38

MATIBIRI, Innocent Tonderai; DOB 09 Oct 1968; Deputy Police Commissioner

39

MATIZA, Biggie Joel; DOB 17 Aug 1960; Passport ZA557399 (Zimbabwe); Deputy

 

Minister of Rural Housing and Social Amenities (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

40

MATONGA, Bright; DOB circa 1969; Deputy Minister of Information and Publicity

41

MATSHALAGA, Obert; DOB 21 Apr 1951; Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs

42

MENEZES, Antonio Famtosonghiu Sampo (a.k.a. HUI, Samo; a.k.a. JINGHUA, Xu;

 

a.k.a. KING, Sam; a.k.a. KYUNG-WHA, Tsui; a.k.a. LEUNG, Ghiu Ka; a.k.a. PA,

 

Sam); DOB 28 Feb 1958; nationality China; citizen Angola; alt. citizen United

 

Kingdom; Passport C234897(0) (United Kingdom) (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

43

MNANGAGWA, Emmerson Dambudzo; DOB 15 Sep 1946; Passport AD00060 (Zimbabwe);

 

Minister of Rural Housing and Social Amenities (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

44

MOHADI, Kembo Campbell Dugishi; DOB 15 Nov 1949; Minister of Home Affairs

45

MOYO, Jonathan Nathaniel; DOB 12 Jan 1957; Passport AD000432 (Zimbabwe); Member

 

of Parliament for Tsholotsho & Former Minister of Information and Publicity

46

MOYO, Simon Khaya; DOB 01 Oct 1945; Passport ZD001512 (Zimbabwe); Politburo

 

Member (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

47

MPOFU, Obert Moses; DOB 12 Oct 1951; Passport ZD001549 (Zimbabwe); Deputy

 

Secretary for National Security (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

48

MUCHENA, Olivia Nyembezi, 59 The Chase, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB 18

 

Aug 1946; Passport AD000086 (Zimbabwe); Minister of State for Science and

 

Technology Development (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

49

MUCHINGURI, Natasha, 2 Tender Road, Highlands, Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB circa 1994;

 

Child of Oppah Muchinguri (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

50

MUCHINGURI, Oppah Chamu Zvipange, 15 Moorherist Avenue, Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB 14

 

Dec 1958; Minister of Women's Affairs, Gender and Community Development

51

MUCHINGURI, Tanya, 2 Tender Road, Highlands, Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB circa 1989;

 

Child of Oppah Muchinguri (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

52

MUDEDE, Tobaiwa (a.k.a. "TONNETH"); DOB 22 Dec 1942; Registrar General

53

MUGABE, Grace; DOB 23 Jul 1965; Passport AD001159 (Zimbabwe); Spouse of Robert

 

Mugabe (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

54

MUGABE, Leo (a.k.a. "CDE MUGABE"), 72 Green Groove Drive, Greendale, Harare,

 

Zimbabwe; DOB 28 Feb 1957; alt. DOB 28 Aug 1962; MP for Makonde; Nephew of

 

Robert MUGABE (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

55

MUGABE, Robert Gabriel; DOB 21 Feb 1924; Passport AD002119 (Zimbabwe); President

 

of the Republic of Zimbabwe (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

56

MUGUTI, Edwin, 7 Tay Road, Vainona, Borrowdale, Zimbabwe; DOB 02 May 1964;

 

Passport AN775556 (Zimbabwe); Deputy Minister of Health and Child Welfare

57

MUJURU, Joyce Teurai Ropa; DOB 15 Apr 1955; Second Vice President (individual)

58

MUMBENGEGWI, Samuel Simbarashe Simbanenduku, 22 Stour Road, Vainona, Borrowdale,

 

Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB 20 Jul 1945; Non-Constituency Member of Parliament

59

MURERWA, Herbert Muchemwa; DOB 31 Jul 1941; Passport AD001167 (Zimbabwe);

 

Minister of Finance (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

60

MURERWA, Ruth Chipo, 321 Ard-Na-Lea Close, Glen Lorne, Chisipite, Zimbabwe; DOB

 

27 Jul 1947; Passport AD001244 (Zimbabwe) expires 19 Aug 2009; Spouse of Herbert

 

Murerwa (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

61

MUSHOHWE, Christopher Chindoti; DOB 06 Feb 1954; Minister of Transport and

 

Communications (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

62

MUTASA, Didymus Noel Edwin; DOB 27 Jul 1935; Minister of State for National

 

Security (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

63

MUTINHIRI, Ambrose; DOB 22 Feb 1944; Passport AD000969 (Zimbabwe); Minister of

 

Youth Development and Employment Creation (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

64

MUTIWEKUZIVA, Kenneth Keparadza; DOB 27 May 1948; Deputy Minister for Small and

 

Medium Enterprise Development (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

65

MUZENDA, Tsitsi; DOB 22 Aug 1922; Politburo Senior Committee Member (individual)

66

MUZONZINI, Elisha; DOB 24 Jun 1957; Passport AD000648 (Zimbabwe); Former

 

Director of the Central Intelligence Organization (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

67

NCUBE, Abedinico; DOB 13 Mar 1954; Deputy Minister of Public Service, Labour and

 

Social Welfare (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

68

NCUBE, Owen, Zimbabwe; DOB 17 Apr 1968; Gender Male (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

69

NDLOVU, Richard; DOB 26 Jun 1942; Politburo Deputy Commissariat (individual)

70

NHEMA, Chenayaimoyo Dunstan Francis, 3 Farthinghill Road, Borrowdale, Harare,

 

Zimbabwe; DOB 17 Apr 1959; Passport AD000966 (Zimbabwe); Minister of Environment

 

and Tourism (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

71

NYAMBUYA, Michael Rueben; DOB 23 Jul 1955; Passport AN045019 (Zimbabwe);

 

Minister of Energy and Power Development (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

72

PA, Sam (a.k.a. HUI, Samo; a.k.a. JINGHUA, Xu; a.k.a. KING, Sam; a.k.a. KYUNG-

 

WHA, Tsui; a.k.a. LEUNG, Ghiu Ka; a.k.a. MENEZES, Antonio Famtosonghiu Sampo);

 

DOB 28 Feb 1958; nationality China; citizen Angola; alt. citizen United Kingdom;

 

Passport C234897(0) (United Kingdom) (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

73

PARIRENYATWA, David Pagwese, P.O. Box 66222, Kopje, Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB 02 Aug

 

1950; Passport AD000899 (Zimbabwe); Minister of Health and Child Welfare

74

POTE, Selina; Deputy Secretary for Gender and Culture (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

75

SAKABUYA, Morris; Deputy Minister of Local Government, Public Works, and Urban

 

Development (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

76

SANYATWE, Anselem Nhamo, Zimbabwe; Tanzania; DOB 21 Jan 1956; Gender Male;

 

Passport 290060361Y34 (Zimbabwe) expires 23 Jun 2024 (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

77

SAVANHU, Tendai; DOB 21 Mar 1968; Politburo Deputy Secretary of Transport and

 

Social Welfare (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

78

SEKERAMAYI, Sidney Tigere, 31 Honey Bear Lane, Borrowdale, Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB

 

30 Mar 1944; Minister of Defence (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

79

SEKERAMAYI, Tsitsi Chihuri, 31 Honey Bear Lane, Borrowdale, Harare, Zimbabwe;

 

DOB circa 1944; Spouse of Sydney Sekeramayi (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

80

SHAMU, Webster Kotiwani, 1 Uplands Close, Highlands, Zimbabwe; DOB 06 Jun 1945;

 

Passport AN203141 (Zimbabwe) expires 15 Jan 2011; Minister of Policy

 

Implementation (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

81

SHIRI, Perence; DOB 11 Jan 1955; Zimbabwean Air Marshal (Air Force) (individual)

82

SIBANDA, Levy; Deputy Police Commissioner (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

83

SIKOSANA, Absolom; Politburo Secretary for Youth Affairs (individual)

84

TAGWIREI, Kuda (a.k.a. TAGWIREI, Kudakwashe Regimond), 4 Luna Road, Borrowdale,

 

Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB 12 Feb 1969; POB Shurugwi, Zimbabwe; nationality Zimbabwe;

 

alt. nationality South Africa; Gender Male; Passport FN920256 (Zimbabwe) issued

 

02 Jul 2019 expires 01 Jul 2029; National ID No. 29135894Z66 (Zimbabwe)

85

TAGWIREI, Kudakwashe Regimond (a.k.a. TAGWIREI, Kuda), 4 Luna Road, Borrowdale,

 

Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB 12 Feb 1969; POB Shurugwi, Zimbabwe; nationality Zimbabwe;

 

alt. nationality South Africa; Gender Male; Passport FN920256 (Zimbabwe) issued

 

02 Jul 2019 expires 01 Jul 2029; National ID No. 29135894Z66 (Zimbabwe)

86

TOMANA, Johannes, Office of Attorney General, Private Bag 7714, Causeway,

 

Harare, Zimbabwe; DOB 09 Sep 1967; National ID No. 50-036322F 50 (Zimbabwe);

 

Attorney General (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

87

ZERENIE, Jimmy; nationality Singapore; Passport E0840452D (Singapore);

 

Identification Number 264/2005 (Singapore) (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

88

ZHUWAO, Beauty Lily; DOB 10 Jan 1965; Passport AN353466 (Zimbabwe); Spouse of

 

Patrick Zhuwao (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

89

ZHUWAO, Patrick; DOB 23 May 1967; Deputy Minister of Science and Technology

90

ZIMONDI, Paradzai; DOB 04 Mar 1947; Zimbabwe Prisons Chief (individual)

91

"CDE MUGABE" (a.k.a. MUGABE, Leo), 72 Green Groove Drive, Greendale, Harare,

 

Zimbabwe; DOB 28 Feb 1957; alt. DOB 28 Aug 1962; MP for Makonde; Nephew of

 

Robert MUGABE (individual) [ZIMBABWE].

92

"TONNETH" (a.k.a. MUDEDE, Tobaiwa); DOB 22 Dec 1942; Registrar General

 

(individual) [ZIMBABWE].

  
 

Individuals on UK sanctions list

 

(number relates to the US sanctions list, only one individual is not listed by the US)

  

68

NCUBE, Owen Title(s): Mr Position(s): Minister of State for National Security

 

D.O.B: 17/04/1968 Nationality(/ies): Zimbabwean Gender: Male Sanctions Imposed: Asset freeze and travel ban UK Statement of Reasons: There are reasonable grounds to suspect that Owen Ncube bears responsibility for serious human rights violations, including systematic torture, committed by the security forces in the context of the heavy crackdown on protests in January 2019 by virtue of his position as Minister of State for National Security at the relevant time. There are also reasonable grounds to suspect that in directing ECONET to suspend all internet services in January 2019, which order the High Court subsequently ruled as illegal, Owen Ncube has also been involved in other actions that undermined the rule of law in Zimbabwe.

76

SANYATWE, Anselem Nhamo Title(s): Formerly army General, currently Lieutenant-General Position(s): Formerly Brigadier General, Commander of the Presidential Guard and Tactical Commander of the National Reaction Force, currently Zimbabwe Ambassador to Tanzania

 

Address: (1) Tanzania  (2)  Harare, Zimbabwe D.O.B: 21/01/1956 Nationality(/ies): Zimbabwean Passport number: 290060361Y34 Gender: Male Sanctions Imposed: Asset freeze and travel ban UK Statement of Reasons: There are reasonable grounds to suspect that Sanyatwe is responsible for the commission of serious human rights violations by military personnel in the National Reaction Force involved in the crackdown on an opposition protest carried out on 1 August 2018 leading to the deaths of six people by virtue of his role as Tactical Commander of that force at the relevant time. As such, he has undermined the rule of law in Zimbabwe.

36

MATANGA, Godwin Title(s): Commissioner General Position(s): Commissioner General of the Zimbabwe Republic Police

 

D.O.B: 05/02/1962 Town of birth: Chipinge Country of birth: Zimbabwe Nationality(/ies): Zimbabwean Passport number: ZL042663 Gender: Male Sanctions Imposed: Asset freeze and travel ban UK Statement of Reasons: There are reasonable grounds to suspect that Godwin Matanga bears responsibility for serious human rights violations committed by the police and military during the crackdown on post-election protests in August 2018, which resulted in six civilian deaths, by virtue of his position as Commissioner General of the Zimbabwe Republic Police Force based in Harare at the relevant time. Those actions undermined the rule of law in Zimbabwe.

93

Primary Name: Isaac MOYO Title(s): Director General Position(s): Director General, Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO)

 

Nationality(/ies): Zimbabwean Gender: Male Sanctions Imposed: Asset freeze and travel ban UK Statement of Reasons: There are reasonable grounds to suspect that Isaac Moyo, as Director General of the Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO), has been responsible for acts that constitute serious human rights violations in the context of the heavy crackdown on protests in January 2019 by state security forces. There are also reasonable grounds to suspect that in directing ECONET to suspend all internet services in January 2019, which order the High Court subsequently ruled as illegal, Isaac Moyo has also been involved in other actions that undermined the rule of law in Zimbabwe.

 

 

 

Entities under US sanctions

  

1

ALLAN GRANGE FARM, Chegutu, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

2

AUCHENBURG FARM, Nyamandhlovu, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

3

BAMBOO CREEK FARM, Shamva, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

4

BLOCK WOOD MINING (a.k.a. MARANGE RESOURCES; a.k.a. MARANGE RESOURCES (PRIVATE)

 

LIMITED; a.k.a. MARANGE RESOURCES LTD), MMCZ Building, 90 Mutare Road, Harare,

 

Zimbabwe; P.O. Box 4101, Harare, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

5

BOURNE FARM, Chegutu, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

6

COLD COMFORT FARM TRUST CO-OPERATIVE, 7 Cowie Road, Tynwald, Harare, Zimbabwe;

 

P.O. Box 6996, Harare, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

7

COMOIL (PVT) LTD, 2nd Floor, Travel Plaza, 29 Mazoe St., Box CY2234, Causeway,

 

Harare, Zimbabwe; Block D, Emerald Hill Office P, Emerald Park, Harare, Zimbabwe

8

CONDURANGO (a.k.a. CONDURANGO INVESTMENTS PVT LTD; a.k.a. MBADA; a.k.a. MBADA

 

DIAMOND MINING; a.k.a. MBADA DIAMONDS; a.k.a. MBADA DIAMONDS (PRIVATE) LIMITED),

 

New Office Park, Block C, Sam Levy's Village, Borrowdale, Harare, Zimbabwe; P.O.

 

Box CY1342, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

9

CORBURN 13 FARM, Chegutu, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

10

DIVINE HOMES (PVT) LTD (a.k.a. DIVINE HOMES), 31 Kensington, Highlands, Harare,

 

Zimbabwe; Shop # 6, Hillside Shopping Centre, Harare, Zimbabwe; 12 Meredith

 

Drive, Eastlea, Harare, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

11

EIRIN FARM, Marondera, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

12

EYRIE FARM, Mashvingo, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

13

FAMBA SAFARIS, 4 Wayhill Lane, Umwinsidale, Harare, Zimbabwe; P.O. Box CH273,

 

Chisipite, Harare, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

14

FOUNTAIN FARM, Insiza, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

15

HARMONY FARM, Mazowe, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

16

JONGWE PRINTING & PUBLISHING COMPANY (PVT) LTD (a.k.a. JONGWE PRINTING AND

 

PUBLISHING CO; a.k.a. JONGWE PRINTING AND PUBLISHING COMPANY; a.k.a. JONGWE

 

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING COMPANY (PVT) LTD), 14 Austin Road, Coventry Road,

 

Workington, Harare, Zimbabwe; Po Box 5988, Harare, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

17

LITTLE CONNEMARA 1 FARM, Nyanga, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

18

LOCHINVAR FARM, Mashvingo, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

19

LOT 3A OF DETE VALLEY FARM, Lupane, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

20

LOTHAIN FARM, Gutu, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

21

M & S SYNDICATE (PVT) LTD. (a.k.a. M AND S SYNDICATE (PVT) LTD.), First Floor,

 

Victory House, 88 Robert Mugabe Road, Harare, Zimbabwe; P.O. Box 1275, Harare,

22

MARANGE RESOURCES (a.k.a. BLOCK WOOD MINING; a.k.a. MARANGE RESOURCES (PRIVATE)

 

LIMITED; a.k.a. MARANGE RESOURCES LTD), MMCZ Building, 90 Mutare Road, Harare,

 

Zimbabwe; P.O. Box 4101, Harare, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

23

MARONDERA MAPLE LEAF FARM, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

24

MBADA (a.k.a. CONDURANGO; a.k.a. CONDURANGO INVESTMENTS PVT LTD; a.k.a. MBADA

 

DIAMOND MINING; a.k.a. MBADA DIAMONDS; a.k.a. MBADA DIAMONDS (PRIVATE) LIMITED),

 

New Office Park, Block C, Sam Levy's Village, Borrowdale, Harare, Zimbabwe; P.O.

 

Box CY1342, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

25

MINERALS MARKETING CORPORATION OF ZIMBABWE (a.k.a. MMCZ), 90 Mutare Road,

 

Harare, Zimbabwe; P.O. Box 2628, Harare, Zimbabwe; Phone No. 263-4-486946; Fax

26

OLDHAM FARM, Chegutu, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

27

OSLEG (a.k.a. OPERATION SOVEREIGN LEGITIMACY; a.k.a. OSLEG (PVT.) LTD.; a.k.a.

 

OSLEG ENTERPRISES; a.k.a. OSLEG MINES; a.k.a. OSLEG MINING AND EXPLORATION;

 

a.k.a. OSLEG VENTURES), Lonrho House, Union Avenue, Harare, Zimbabwe

 

 

28

PATTERSON FARM, Mazowe, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

29

PIMENTO FARM, Mashonaland, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

30

R/E OF AUDREY FARM, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

31

SAKUNDA HOLDINGS (a.k.a. SAKUNDA HOLDINGS PRIVATE LIMITED), Samora Machel Avenue

 

No. 45 (between J. Nyerere Way and L. Takawira Street), 4th, 15th, 16th, and

 

17th Floors, Century Towers, Harare, Zimbabwe; Organization Established Date

 

2005 [ZIMBABWE] (Linked To: TAGWIREI, Kudakwashe Regimond).

32

SINO ZIM DEVELOPMENT (PVT) LTD (a.k.a. SINO ZIM HOLDINGS (PVT) LTD; a.k.a. SINO

 

ZIMBABWE COTTON HOLDINGS), 3rd Floor, Livingstone House, 48 Samora Machel

 

Avenue, Harare, Zimbabwe; PO Box 7520, Harare, Zimbabwe; Telephone: (04) 710043

 

 

33

SPRING SP FARM, Mashvingo, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

34

ULVA FARM, Marondera, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

35

UMGUZA BLOCK FARM, Umguza, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

36

ZIDCO HOLDINGS (PVT) LTD (a.k.a. ZIDCO HOLDINGS), 88 Robert Mugabe Road, Harare,

37

ZIMBABWE DEFENCE INDUSTRIES (PVT) LTD., 10th Floor, Trustee House, 55 Samora

 

Machel Avenue, Harare, Zimbabwe; P.O. Box 6597, Harare, Zimbabwe [ZIMBABWE].

38

ZIMBABWE IRON AND STEEL COMPANY (a.k.a. ZISCO; a.k.a. ZISCOSTEEL), Private Bag

 

2, Redcliff Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe; Phone No. 263-55-62401; Fax No. 263-55-68666

 

 

39

ZIMBABWE MINING DEVELOPMENT CORP. (a.k.a. ZIMBABWE MINING DEVELOPMENT

 

CORPORATION; a.k.a. ZMDC), MMCZ Building, 90 Mutare Rd., Harare, Zimbabwe; P.O.

 

Box 4101, Harare, Zimbabwe; Phone No. 263-4-487014; Fax No. 263-4-487022

40

ZISCO (a.k.a. ZIMBABWE IRON AND STEEL COMPANY; a.k.a. ZISCOSTEEL), Private Bag

 

2, Redcliff Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe; Phone No. 263-55-62401; Fax No. 263-55-68666

 

 

41

ZMDC (a.k.a. ZIMBABWE MINING DEVELOPMENT CORP.; a.k.a. ZIMBABWE MINING

 

DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION), MMCZ Building, 90 Mutare Rd., Harare, Zimbabwe; P.O.

 

Box 4101, Harare, Zimbabwe; Phone No. 263-4-487014; Fax No. 263-4-487022

 

 

  
 

Entity under UK sanctions

37

Zimbabwe Defence Industries

 

Address: 10th Floor, Trustee House, 55 Samora Machel Avenue, PO Box 6597, Harare, Zimbabwe Type of entity: State-owned company Sanctions Imposed: Asset freeze Other Information: Business Sector: Defence UK Statement of Reasons: Associated with the Ministry of Defence and the ZANU-PF faction of Government.

 

References

BBC News. Reality Check team. 25 October 2019. Zimbabwe sanctions: Who is being targeted? https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-50169598

Tawanda Majoni. The Standard. 15 November 2020. Zimbabwe: Command Agric - the Looting Frenzy Continues. https://allafrica.com/stories/202011160900.html

Simangele Moyo-Nyede. 29 October 2021. Afrobarometer Dispatch No. 485. Zimbabweans blame government, not sanctions, for country’s economic meltdown. https://afrobarometer.org/publications/ad485-zimbabweans-blame-government-not-sanctions-countrys-economic-meltdown

Leopold Munhende. New Zimbabwe. 22nd February 2022. EU Renews Zimbabwe Sanctions: Move Comes Days After State Media Claimed Mnangagwa Brussels Breakthrough. https://www.newzimbabwe.com/eu-renews-sanctions-on-zimbabwe-over-human-r...

Brian A. Nichols. U.S. Embassy in Zimbabwe. It’s Not Sanctions, It’s Corruption and Lack of Reform - U.S. Embassy in Zimbabwe (usembassy.gov)

Thabani Nyoni. 7 November 2019. University of Zimbabwe. The curse is real in Zimbabwe: economic sanctions must go! MPRA_paper_96911.pdf (uni-muenchen.de)
 

Notes


[i] Zimbabweans blame government, not sanctions, for country’s economic meltdown.

[ii] Zimbabwe sanctions: Who is being targeted?

[iv] Ibid

[vi] It’s Not Sanctions, It’s Corruption and Lack of Reform

[vii] Ibid

[viii] This must surely be a large understatement when gold smuggling out of the country is included

[ix] Zimbabwe: Command Agric - the Looting Frenzy Continues.

[x] EU Renews Zimbabwe Sanctions: Move Comes Days After State Media Claimed Mnangagwa Brussels Breakthrough

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