The Loyal Women’s Guild and the Pioneer Memorial Crosses

Introduction

In the five years of writing articles for my website, I have come across a few of the remaining Pioneer memorial crosses, or Gregory crosses, in several remote sites in Zimbabwe, and having noticed their uniform appearance, wondered who put them on these lonely graves and why. This article explains the who and the why and attempts to establish the exact number that were originally placed around the country. Sadly, many memorial crosses with their brass tablets were sold for scrap in the economic chaos following 2000 and are lost forever; but an Excel spreadsheet is available that details the gravesite location and name of each memorial from the Loyal Women’s Guild (LWG) grave register.   

The photo shows the Pioneer memorial cross to W. Derrick Hoste who died on the 25/05/1893 of blackwater fever at Old Hartley. Nine other BSAP and Natal Troopers are listed as being buried at the same cemetery, although only eight graves exist; their grave markers must have still existed in 1909-10 as his was the only memorial cross erected at this cemetery. [See the article on Derick Hoste on the website www.zimfieldguide.com under Mashonaland West]  

Origins in South Africa after the Second Boer War

The Guild of Loyal Women of South Africa (Daughters of the Empire) or GLW was founded to promote goodwill between Brutish and Afrikaners under the motto of “For King and Empire” with its headquarters in Cape Town.

The main task of the GLW organization in South Africa became that of identifying, marking and maintaining graves from the Second Boer War (11 Oct 1899 – 31 May 1902) in military graveyards. The GLW ensured that the relatives of dead soldiers were contacted, and that the graves were properly marked and recorded. When the GLW sent members to Britain to explain what they were doing to raise money, women who had the ear of the male British establishment formed the Victoria League to promote links between organisations within the British Empire.  

The GLW Graves Report of 1906 of the Cape Colony stated; “we ask you to remember that our cross is indestructible, made of wrought iron and beaten brass. Our object is to put a permanent marker on each grave. Any expert will tell you the great advantage our cross has over those of cheaper manufacture…we have made the sacrifice [of paying a higher price] in order that our children may say their work was well done…It is not enough that our generation should know that such a man lies in such a grave. We want the information handed down from generation to generation.”   

Formation of the Loyal Women’s Guild in Rhodesia

A Rhodesian branch with the re-arranged title of The Loyal Women’s Guild (LWG) was inaugurated in Salisbury on 3 March 1907 by Lady Milton. A prominent founder member was the author and conservationist, Dorothea Fairbridge (1862–1931) and a cousin of Kingsley Fairbridge (1885–1924); the Rhodesian poet and founder of the "Fairbridge Society." Branches were established in the main towns around the country under the direction of a central committee with the Administrator, Sir William Milton, as President.

The LWG’s work started with the employment of a district nurse, but their activities gradually expanded to include the distribution of food, money and clothes to the poor, the relief of unemployment by running an early labour exchange, the administration of charitable funds such as the Beit Railway Trust Maternity Grant and support of the Salisbury Hostel which had been founded in 1904 by the South African Colonization Society as a maternity home for the coloured community (persons of mixed race) By 1927 the LWG had taken over the management of the Salisbury Hostel and in the following year the Lady Chancellor Nursing and Maternity Home was opened with the LWG playing an active part in its management until these institutions were taken over by Government during WWII in 1940.

Gradually over the years the State assumed many of the social welfare activities that were previously run by the LWG as a voluntary organization, although social and educational activities grew as welfare activities diminished, but by 1953 the LWG had wound up its activities and their papers and records were presented to the National Archives  

The LWG Graves Committee comes up with the idea of Pioneer Crosses in Rhodesia

The concept of marking graves had originated in South Africa; but in 1908 a committee of the LWG was formed that was especially dedicated to the registration of Pioneer and early settlers’ graves.  

The LWG Graves Report of 1908-1909 stated: “The Guild in the Southern Colonies having brought to a successful conclusion the work of marking the graves of soldiers who fell in the late war, [the Second Boer War of 11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902] and it has been felt by the Rhodesian branches that what has been done so well by the older branches might be attempted here with regard to the graves of our own Pioneers and early settlers’.

It is true that our division of the Guild has only a small membership, but on the other hand we have only a few hundred graves to consider as against the many thousands marked by the other Colonies…owing to the unsettled nature of the country in the early days, many of our Pioneers and early settlers received burial in graves which are either unmarked, or were marked with wooden crosses which are now rotting away and it is certain that the last resting place of many of those who won our country for us will be lost forever unless the matter is attended to at once.

The definition of the term “Pioneer and Early Settler” included all those who came up with the Pioneer Column and all those who came subsequently and died in “our native wars” or whilst they lasted up to the end of 1897.”

The Committee received official approval from the British South Africa Company administration in a letter dated 31 July 1908: “My letter of 18th of June was sent by direction of his honour the Administrator [Sir William Henry Milton KCMG, KCVO: 20 December 1901 – 1 November 1914] because it was known that the care of the graves of those who had fallen in War was one of the objects of the Guild in other Colonies, and it was felt that the members of the Rhodesian branch would take an interest in knowing what steps were taken to preserve similar memorials in this Territory.

His Honour now wishes me to thank you for your letter and to express on behalf of the government his appreciation of the Guild’s offer to assist in marking in a permanent manner the graves of Pioneers and other Europeans who lost their lives in the Wars of 1893 and 1896-97.

There are a great many more small cemeteries in various parts of the country and I am endeavouring to get a complete list from the commandant of the British South Africa Police [BSAP] for your information.

I would suggest that at this fairly early date that Colonel Bodle [Commissioner of the BSAP: 1903 – 1909] and myself should wait upon your Committee with a view to discussing the best steps to ensure that as many graves as can be identified should be registered and marked in the manner suggested by you in your letter.

Once so marked I feel sure that there will be no difficulty in securing the co-operation of the Police in the country districts for their permanent maintenance.”

Significantly, this letter was written by Hugh Marshall Hole, appointed to the British South Africa Company (BSAC) in 1891 and in charge of administration by 1909; whose wife was to take on the role of first Honorary Secretary of the LWG Graves Committee.

Why the need for Pioneer memorial crosses?

As Rob Burrett points out in his article Rhodesian Field Force (Anglo-South African War) graves in Zimbabwe, with particular reference to Marondera in Heritage of Zimbabwe Publication No. 19, 2000 the initial recording of gravesites was often poorly documented. Both the military forces and the British South Africa company had limited administration, and staff in both organisations were regularly rotated to different localities, so the recording of the deceased details was often sketchy and inaccurate. Those with common surnames were often muddled and surnames and initials spelt incorrectly.

In addition, the exact position of graves was often unknown, the original wooden cross may have been burnt in bushfires or destroyed by ants. So even where Gregory iron markers have been placed on graves, their positioning by the local BSAP was often based on guesswork and they should all be treated as potentially mistaken; for example, see Burrett’s article above on Paradise Plot at Marondera. Sometimes too, there are Gregory iron foundry errors which were missed by the LWG, for example the memorial to Private Smith Vickers reads: FOR QUEEN & EMPIRE. SMITH VICKERS KRR 3.9.96. but should read 3.8.96. [[See the article on Fort Haynes on the website www.zimfieldguide.com under Manicaland]

Descriptions of the locations of graves outside official cemeteries was often vague. For example, on 23/11/1897 Percy Inskipp, the under-secretary of the BSAC sent a list of names of members of the BSAP killed in Mashonaland giving details of their burial places. The first three are:

Rank

Names

Date of Death

Place of burial

Tpr

Brady, John Charles

23.02.1897

Sawes Farm, on left of Umtali Road, under a tree, a cross cut out on tree

Tpr

Gloss, John

06.06.1897

500 yards to the right and rear of Mashanganika's kraal

Tpr

Smithwick, Charles

26.07.1897

300 yards right of the Charter - Hartley road, 450 yards west of kraal under Chestnut tree alongside W. Dando's grave (7th Hussars)

Clearly from these descriptions after a few years nobody would be able to locate the site of their graves and this situation existed at many of the more remote gravesites.

In another letter BSAP Corporal W.S. King writes from Marandellas on 8/08/1912: “At Old Marandellas Cemetery, there are three graves with stone crosses. These are quite new, and the names and particulars are plain and decipherable. There are also 15 graves with iron crosses. Only one of these is decipherable, that is on the grave of Trooper Studdart; the remainder are undecipherable. I can find no trace of the names, dates, etc. on any of them…. on the crosses at Old Marandellas Cemetery the words were originally painted and owing to years of exposure to the atmosphere, etc. they are now obliterated.

Taking up the challenge

Ethel Marshall Hole was the first Honorary Secretary of the Graves Fund and many of the initial letters were hand–written by her with the copies bound into a duplicate book. [National Archives GU 1/1] For example, on 26 February 1909 she wrote to Mr Beal appealing for a contribution saying: “As you probably know one of the objects of the Guild is to record and mark by suitable monument the last resting place of the early Pioneers and those who have laid down their lives in helping to build up Rhodesia. The remains of these men lie in lonely cemeteries scattered throughout the country and will soon be forgotten and all trace of them lost – unless they are marked now.”

On 3 March 1909, Ethel wrote to Hugh Marshall Hole, then Administrator of the BSA Company, stating that they would apply to the Railway Company to provide free carriage for their memorial crosses and requesting the assistance of the BSAP to: “consign the crosses to the Police Camp nearest to the place where they are to be erected. It will be of great assistance to the Guild if advantage cab be taken of any Govt. transport going out to such remote Camps, and if the crosses can be conveyed as occasion offers, free of charge.

A rely from Marshall Hole dated 6 March 1909 said the BSAC: “will be pleased to co-operate with the Guild, by allowing the crosses to be consigned to police stations in districts remote from the Railway, and for them to be conveyed by Government transport, free of charge, as occasion offers.”

In June a reply letter from Mrs Holland, who had now succeeded Ethel Marshall Hole as the Honorary Secretary, said on behalf of the Guild: “please to convey to His Honour the Administrator their sincere thanks for kindly promising Government transport for Guild crosses after they leave the Railway” and informing him “that it has been decided to purchase in Cape Town indestructible crosses made of wrought iron with beaten brass tablets, the total cost per cross being 25/- [shillings] in Cape Town.” Further: “the weight of each cross being about 25lbs and the rate of transport being 11/6 per 100lbs, the carriage of 100 crosses would be about £15 to Bulawayo. The maker [Gregory iron foundry] has promised us a rebate of £7 10/- towards carriage of crosses if a consignment of 100 is ordered.

The letter goes on to say that the Graves Committee in Cape Colony having completed their task “would rather not ask their Government for any concession on our crosses but have advised us to ask the Cape Government through our own.” The letter ends by asking: “if it would be possible for the Rhodesian Government to assist us by furthering to the Cape Colony Government our petition for a rebate of £7 10/- per 100 Guild crosses up to 300 crosses…from Capetown to Bulawayo.”    

In a reply on 25 June 1909 Marshall Hole said the BSA Company had written: “to the Cape Government requesting a rebate of £7 10/- per hundred Guild crosses from Cape Town to Bulawayo.”

In the same month Mrs Holland wrote to Mr Stevens of The Beira and Mashonaland and Rhodesia Railways saying the first importation of crosses from the Gregory Iron foundry was about to take place. “The carriage of these by rail of these crosses is rather a serious matter to us. The C.G.R. [Cape Government Railways] have granted to the Ladies Guild in Cape Colony free carriage over their lines of crosses and if a similar condition could be granted over the Rhodesian system to the Rhodesian branch of the Guild the advantage to the [Grave] Fund would be very great. Another letter dated 18 June 1909 to the Secretary of the Rhodesia Railways Ltd informed them that the Guild proposed to import 300 memorial crosses and hoped for a rail freight concession.” A further letter a day later gave the information that “the weight of the iron crosses…is approximately 25 lbs (not more) each.

A reply from The Beira and Mashonaland and Rhodesia Railways in July said the “Board have agreed to the crosses for the graves of early Rhodesian Pioneers being carried free over the railways from Vryburg northwards” but that the Cape Government Railways had only agreed to reduce their freight rate from second to third class rate at owner’s risk.    

Additional letters were written to the Salisbury Town Clerk requesting information “about the old cemetery here and those buried in it” in the form of a list.

The Graves Registers

There are two Graves Registers at the National Archive of Zimbabwe; the LWG Register is referenced as NAZ 1/4/1 and the Pioneer and Police Graves Register pre-1923 is referenced as NAZ S152.

Both Graves Registers have deceased names listed by locality (i.e. Gwanda, Filabusi, etc) and are compiled from lists drawn up by the BSAP who were instructed to carry out this task by the Administrator, Sir William Milton.

A register of all the graves of the Pioneers and early settlers both marked and unmarked was compiled by the Central Committee of the LWG from information supplied by the BSA Police and Native Commissioners, this became known as “Mrs Holland’s book” [NAZ 1/4/1] after the then Honorary Secretary. The list of unmarked graves was divided and sent to each district so that they could add any further graves they could discover. Each branch of the LWG was responsible for marking the graves in its district and the town / place listings in the Excel database uses the same information.  

The GLW Register (NAZ GU 1/4/1) was compiled before 1908 and lists by locality the names of those deceased with their date of death and details of the gravesite. The aim of the GLW was to ensure that the gravesites of all those who died in the early colonial period up to 1908 were marked.  Some graves already had iron markers or a marble memorial, and the GLW was concerned not with marking all graves, but with placing an iron memorial cross with a brass tablet which included the deceased individuals’ name and details where they were at risk of being lost or forgotten.

All graves marked with a red cross symbol in “Mrs Holland’s book” received an iron Pioneer memorial cross with a brass tablet which included the deceased individuals’ name and details.

Hugh Marshall-Hole reviewed the names in the LWG Grave Register and made additions and corrections on many pages. For example, Stanford is changed with a note stating: “Mr Hole says Arthur Standford.

Another note signed MEH states: “The new cemetery was started in 1897. I do not understand how these men who died at such an early date came to be in the New Cemetery unless they were moved from the old Hospital?

At Goromonzi at Warrendale Farm, BSAP Tprs White and Turner had existing iron crosses, but Tpr H.V. Standing did not have an iron cross as he committed suicide, so the LWG ordered and placed a Gregory iron marker for him. [See the article on Fort Harding on the website www.zimfieldguide.com under Mashonaland Central] John Fletcher, killed at the siege of Deary’s store at Abercorn (now Shamva) had only his name painted on claim plates on a nearby tree; a LWG cross was placed on his grave. [See the article on the website www.zimfieldguide.com under Mashonaland East] In some cases, especially the Salisbury Pioneer Cemetery, there were good iron crosses, but the tablets had become defaced, in which case the LWG ordered new brass tablets.

The Pioneer and Police Graves Register pre-1923 [NAZ S152] appears to have been written up by Lieutenant-Colonel and BSAP Commissioner (1903 – 1909) William “Billy” Bodle and in addition to the names included in NAZ S152 includes many other names [listed in black in my database] where I have combined the two sources.

It is clear the author of NAZ S152 personally visited the sites or had access to reports about the sites. For example, under Filabusi Monument the following notes are written: “The monument itself, 20 ft. high, 3 ft. square at base, in in good order. Very neglected surroundings and no fence. Wanted 4 posts with 4 lengths of iron chain 9 ft. long; grass and bush to be cleared away.”

Most of the Pioneer memorial crosses were for men, but a few women received memorial crosses. For example, Mrs O.L. Cowan who is buried in Sby New Cemetery Grave 51 and died on 23/05/1894.

The grave registers were an essential part of the process as the grave names previously had not been consolidated. At Salisbury a copy of the burial register kept by the Salisbury Sanitary Board prior to December 1897 was compiled by Mr Horsfield; then a typed list of graves in the old sections of the cemetery was supplied by the Town Clerk, Mr Wardens on 30/09/1909 which amended Mr Horsfield’s list, and finally Hugh Marshall Hole made other amendments on 28/02/1910. 

Final lists were produced of those who needed memorial crosses, or in some cases memorial plates only, but none of the names were in alphabetical order which makes an Excel spreadsheet more user-friendly. For example, under Salisbury are listed names for Abercorn, Mount Darwin, Goromonzi, Mrewa, Marandellas, Fort Enterprise and Sinoia.

In the main towns of Bulawayo, Fort Victoria, Gwelo, Marandellas and Salisbury most unmarked graves were identified, but at more remote locations such as Belingwe, Filabusi, Fort Rixon and Gwanda, no grave markers were identified although there were many possible candidates; possibly because they had no local LGW committee.

What was the cut-off date for erecting Pioneer memorial crosses on unmarked graves?

In Salisbury, as the photo below illustrates, of the 26 pioneers and early settlers listed by the municipality of Salisbury as requiring memorial crosses, only 5 are included with a clear cut-off of 1900; but many other exceptions were made, and Pioneer memorial crosses were placed on graves up to 1909 although the clear majority (89%) were placed on graves from 1891 – 1901.

Overall, the policy of deciding when to place memorial crosses on unmarked graves appears to have been rather inconsistent with post-1900 graves elsewhere being marked.

Pioneer memorial crosses

The LWG memorial crosses were similar to those used in the Cape Colony, being cast in batches at the Gregory iron foundry in Cape Town of wrought iron with an extra-long shank so the cross could be firmly planted in the earth; each had a name tablet of beaten brass with the letters carved by hand and were ordered in batches of one hundred which reduced the cost to 25/- per cross.

The LWG Graves Report of 1908-1909 concluded that “owing to the remote position of many of these graves and the lack of transport it would indeed be a difficult task for Rhodesian women to see that these crosses were actually erected. However, this great difficulty has been met by the Rhodesian Government who decided last year as the result of a report from Col. Bodle on the bad condition of graves in some distant cemeteries which he had visited while on patrol, that the Police and Native Commissioners should be responsible for such graves and cemeteries. This was not at the suggestion of the LWG; but it made the way easy for us to consider marking these graves.” 

As far as next of kin were concerned, the Report considered that for “those whose graves need marking, but so many years having passed, it is likely that those relatives who have not as yet enquired about the graves, or offered to mark them, will not be likely to do so now.”

It was not proposed that any graves should be disturbed or moved from their existing positions.

Raising Funds

Appeal letters contained in the LWG letters register [NAZ GU 1/2] are addressed to the Marquess of Winchester, Dr Jameson, Dr Sauer, the Rt. Hon. The Lord Grey, Mr Fairbridge, Mr Grimmer and many other well-known citizens. Donations were received from the BSAP Football Club, Salisbury Hebrew Congregation, The Salvation Army and there were dozens of individual donations.

Dedication of the Pioneer memorial crosses

Sir William H. Milton, the Administrator of Southern Rhodesia, suggested a service be held at the Salisbury cemetery on Sunday 26 March 1911 on the eighth anniversary of Rhodes’ death to dedicate the memorial crosses erected on the graves of Pioneers, Police and early settlers and to mark the completion of this work by the LWG.

  Grave data

The graph below illustrates how the number of deaths peaked at 685 in 1896-7 with the Matabele and Mashona Rebellions, or Umvukela, or First Chimurenga.

Similarly, the number of Pioneer memorial crosses peaked at 135 (51%) for 1896 – 7 of the total of 265 placed on unmarked graves.

Bulawayo had fewer Pioneer memorial crosses (6%) with the majority of Pioneer memorial crosses placed on unmarked graves at Salisbury (48%) and Gwelo (17%) Grave memorials at Bulawayo and Gwelo appear to have been maintained in better condition than at Salisbury Pioneer cemetery.

This may be because as the Town Clerk, Mr Wardens explained in a letter dated 21/06/1909: “The Municipal Council was not formed until 1897 and we have a complete register of burials from that date onwards; but unfortunately, the same cannot be said of the earlier records.”


Photo showing Pioneer memorial crosses torn up and discarded at the Old Mutare cemetery following the chaos of the 2000 land invasions in Zimbabwe. The photo was taken by Jonty Winch during his research on Monty Bowden who died at Old Mutare on 19/02/1892. [See the article on the Pioneer cemetery at Old Mutare on the website www.zimfieldguide.com under Manicaland]

Spreadsheet of Names

As background for this article, all the details from the two graves registers at the National Archives of Zimbabwe; the LWG Register referenced NAZ 1/4/1 and the Pioneer and Police Graves Register referenced NAZ S152, were entered onto an Excel spreadsheet with over twelve hundred names which can be sorted in various ways. A separate list includes all the details of the Pioneer memorial crosses that were distributed by the LWG. There are also copies of the BSAP and British South Africa Company plans of early cemeteries with keys to the names on the graves.

Anyone who would like a copy of these records for their own research can email me on mikertuck1@gmail.com 

Pioneer and BSAP graves with Pioneer Crosses      
Sources: NAZ S152 Pioneer and Police Graves Register pre 1923 and LWG Register NAZ 1/4/1  
TownPlaceGrave No.Name & InitialsDate of DeathYear of DeathUnitGuild of Loyal WomenDetails
ByoFort Umlugulu Callender G.A.B.20/03/18961896L Troop BSAP1wood cross with name in black letters
ByoGeneral522Adams, Ernest G.22/07/18961896BSAP1no monument
ByoGeneral443Dickie John (Tpr)18/06/18961896K Troop BSAP1no monument
ByoGeneral561Emms E.23/12/19001900BSAP1no monument
ByoGeneral445Harris R.O.26/02/19071907BSAP1no monument
ByoGeneral577Longman W.H. (Tpr)18/08/18961896BSAP1stone cross
ByoGeneral463Lovejoy, Alfred29/10/18971897BSAP1no monument
ByoGeneral504Lyon, Frederick18/11/18991899BSAP1no monument
ByoGeneral512Newitt, Henry20/09/18991899BSAP1no monument
ByoGeneral532Page J.C. (Tpr)13/06/19001900K Troop BSAP1 
ByoGeneral814Painter G. (Tpr)20/04/18961896K Troop BSAP1 
ByoGeneral13Raaf (Commandant)26/12/18931893Pioneer1 
ByoGeneral520Sunderland, William H.19/04/18961896BSAP1no monument
ByoGeneral539Taylor, Ernest29/03/18961896BSAP1no monument
ByoGeneral521Wagner H.F.22/07/18961896BSAP1no monument
ByoMangwe Elgar H.C.28/03/18961896BSAP1Grave No 2, in GLW correspondence
ByoMangwe Lee (Mrs John)07/07/18701870Pioneer1Grave No 17, in GLW correspondence
ChibiLundi drift Clark, John Harrison17/06/18961896ex BSAP1one mile east of Chimanwera's kraal, cross erected per BSAP report
ChipingaMeadows Farm Cawood, James01/09/19071907settler1 
Fort Victoria- Barbour J.16/05/18931893Pioneer1One cross to 12 names as graves not identified
Fort Victoria- Bennett, George24/03/18921892Pioneer*One cross to 12 names as graves not identified
Fort Victoria- Brown, Bertie *07/08/18971897Pioneer*One cross to 12 names as graves not identified
Fort Victoria- Carney J.H.08/07/19001900Pioneer*One cross to 12 names as graves not identified
Fort Victoria- Chinery Lesley A.26/08/18971897BSAP1no marker
Fort Victoria- Davis, H.E. *17/06/18961896BSAP*One cross to 12 names as graves not identified
Fort Victoria- Finnaty11/02/18971897Pioneer*One cross to 12 names as graves not identified
Fort Victoria- Johnnay, John16/03/18931893Pioneer1fair condition
Fort Victoria- Lloyd Edward23/05/18931893Pioneer*One cross to 12 names as graves not identified
Fort Victoria- Martin Peter16/05/18941894BSAP1no marker
Fort Victoria- Paxton Thomas22/01/18931893Pioneer*One cross to 12 names as graves not identified
Fort Victoria- Rumball or Rumble  S.W.L.18/03/18931893Pioneer1fair condition
Fort Victoria- Smith George *26/06/18971897Pioneer*One cross to 12 names as graves not identified
Fort Victoria- Steward James Dyke27/01/18931893Pioneer*One cross to 12 names as graves not identified
Fort Victoria- Stroyan Robert30/04/18991899BSAP1no marker
Fort Victoria- Tolinay J. 16/03/18931893Pioneer*One cross to 12 names as graves not identified, also listed as Gwelo
Fort Victoria- Treskow John31/10/18941894BSAP1no marker
Fort Victoria- Wilson (Tpr)04/03/19001900BSAP#One cross to 4 names as graves not identified
Fort VictoriaClipsham Farm Nesbit C.07/10/18961896Pioneer#One cross to 4 names as graves not identified
Fort VictoriaMakouries Farm Jay E. (Cpl) 27/12/18971897BSAP#One cross to 4 names as graves not identified
Fort VictoriaNdanga cem Cartwright T.20/06/18941894BSAP1BSAP report
Fort VictoriaOld cemetery Atwell (Sgt)24/07/18971897BSAP+grave unknown, one cross with 5 names
Fort VictoriaOld cemetery Cameron  or Carnsew J.H.24/07/18971897Pioneer+grave unknown, one cross with 5 names
Fort VictoriaOld cemetery McCantery or Mccantyre, Charles C.24/07/18971897Pioneer+grave unknown, one cross with 5 names
Fort VictoriaOld cemetery Phelps O.24/07/18971897Pioneer+grave unknown, one cross with 5 names
Fort VictoriaOld cemetery Rodgers J.J.26/03/18921892Pioneer1grave unknown, one cross with 5 names
Fort VictoriaTexas Mine, NdangaWatts, Jack03/03/18981898Pioneer#One cross to 4 names as graves not identified
Fort VictoriaTuli Donovan (Tpr)05/08/18961896BSAP*pioneer road to Fort Victoria, listed on cross to 12 names at Fort Victoria as graves not identified
GatoomaSable Hill, Lydia districtSchrivener (Mrs)02/08/18911891Pioneer1BSAP letter in GLW file states she was the first European woman to die after the 1890 occupation. Mound of stones identified by Mr Eddy as he was present at the funeral. Cross erected by BSAP
GoromonziFort Chikwakwa Standing H.V. (Tpr)14/02/18971897BSAP1suicide; no cross originally
Gwelo- Beane31/03/18921892BSAP1 
Gwelo- Hodskis (Tpr)29/01/18971897BSAP1 
Gwelo- Lawlor A.M. (Tpr)16/05/18991899BSAP1 
Gwelo 43Bolling09/03/18961896 1 
Gwelo 198Bowden Frank L. DSO (Capt)26/06/19061906BSAP stone cross
Gwelo 194Daly, John25/03/18961896Gwelo FF1listed on Filabusi memorial
Gwelo 50Davis, Gordon (Sgt)29/04/18971897BSAP1 
Gwelo 66Forsyth (Tpr)09/04/18931893BSAP1 
Gwelo 83Greenbank, J.W.09/04/18931893Pioneer1 
Gwelo 27Henison27/03/18961896Pioneer1 
Gwelo 6Jay Leonard (Pte)19/10/189718977th Hussars~Fever, All buried in one grave / one iron cross
Gwelo  Kenyon20/03/18961896Pioneer1 
Gwelo  King F. (Tpr)25/02/19011901BSAP1 
Gwelo 32Leighton, Frank Longton31/05/18961896MM Police1fever, died Gwelo hospital
Gwelo  Love D. (Tpr)23/03/18971897BSAP1 
Gwelo 100McFadden27/03/18961896Pioneer1 
Gwelo 6McGeorge Ernest (Pte)29/10/189718977th Hussars~Fever, All buried in one grave / one iron cross
Gwelo 31McLean Malcolm Robert23/10/18991899Gwelo FF1listed on the Gwelo Memorial
Gwelo 9Osborne01/08/19031903Pioneer1 
Gwelo 6Osborne C. (Pte)06/09/19041904A Sqdn, 7th Hussars~Fever, All buried in one grave / one iron cross
Gwelo 6Parrett, J (Lce Cpl)06/09/190419047th Hussars~All buried in one grave / one iron cross
Gwelo  Parry C.E. (Tpr)23/08/18971897BSAP1 
Gwelo 38Perry07/09/19011901Pioneer1 
Gwelo 96Peterson07/09/19021902Pioneer1 
Gwelo 169Reed D.D.08/09/19091909Pioneer1 
Gwelo 30Selous Edric Nugent09/05/18961896Gwelo FF1fever, listed on the Gwelo Memorial
Gwelo 11Soman, Edward (Tpr)13/09/18961896Gwelo FF1listed on the Gwelo Memorial
Gwelo 14Storey Charles F.04/06/18971897Gwelo FF1Fever, listed on the Gwelo Memorial
Gwelo 91Stroyen, Jock08/02/18971897BSAP1 
Gwelo 16Ware, Harry24/03/19041904Pioneer1 
Gwelo 81Weihahn, Charles (Tpr)31/07/19011901BSAP1 
Gwelo  Whalley C.L. (Tpr)30/04/19061906BSAP1 
Gwelo 110Whylie, David31/08/18961896Pioneer1listed on Gwelo Memorial, killed at Gordon & Bates Camp
Gwelo  Wigham A. (Tpr)22/08/18971897BSAP1 
Gwelo 6Willard G. (Sgt Major)10/11/189718977th Hussars1Fever, All buried in one grave / one iron cross
GweloArizona reef Barr William Archibald20/04/18961896Pioneer1listed on Gwelo Memorial' murdered near Ngwenia
GweloFort Umfungwi Inman (Tpr)07/03/19041904BSAP1 
GweloJomani kraal O'Connor Maurice18/10/18971897Pioneer1 
Gwelonear Maven's kraalHarbord, Horace M.26/03/18961896storekeeper1listed on Gwelo Memorial
Gwelonear Maven's kraalIreland10/04/18961896 1listed on Gwelo Memorial
Gwelonear Maven's kraalMilford W.B.28/03/18961896Pioneer1listed on Gwelo Memorial. Listed on death reports at CC's office Gwelo, bodies not discovered
GweloNgwenya Talbot Frederick W. (Cpl)11/09/18961896C Troop BSAP1listed on Gwelo Memorial
GweloPongo Memorial Johnstone H.H. (Tpr)26/03/18961896-1 
GweloPongo Memorial O'Reilly Thomas25/03/18961896 1killed at Shangani 
GweloSananga Hayes Daniel J. (Cpl)29/07/18961896Gwelo FF1KIA, listed on Gwelo Memorial
GweloSelukwe Jones James L. (Tpr)14/02/18971897BSAP1Died at Selukwe Hospital
GweloSelukwe Mathieson Robertson B. (Tpr)21/07/18961896Gwelo FF1KIA, buried 4 miles beyond Bugni Mountain, listed on Gwelo Memorial
GweloSelukwe Smith W.A. (L. Cpl)04/10/189618967th Hussars1ex Hussars, buried E side of Senangere kopje, near Minyola's kraal
GweloShamrock road Lennock, George R.26/03/18961896Pioneer1murdered, buried at 9 mile water, listed on Gwelo Memorial
Gwelo 13Arnold James C.01/08/18961899Gwelo FF1Jaundice, listed on the Gwelo Memorial
HartleyFort Martin Hill A.24/07/18971897BSAP1 
HartleyFort Martin Maurice S.H.24/07/18971897BSAP1 
HartleyFort Martin Mooney David G.15/06/18961896Native Commissioner1killed at Mashayangombe's kraal
HartleyOld Hartley cem Hoste W.D.25/05/18931893Pioneer1 
Hartley  Turner A.L.19/06/18961896storekeeper1killed with Carrick on way to Sby
Inyanga- Broadbent E.C.20/04/18971897Telegraph linesman1wood cross with tinplate, 1 km from police camp. Employed on building the telegraph line to Nyasaland; almost certainly the man who led the defenders at the siege of Deary's store at Abercorn (Shamva)
Inyanga- Harris T.E. (Tpr)25/03/18981898BSAP1wood cross with tinplate, 1 km from police camp
MarandellasParadise Plot Armstrong C.B. (Tpr)25/06/1897189761st  Imperial Yeomanry1wood cross, zinc nameplate
MarandellasParadise Plot Davies S. (Tpr)25/07/1900190030th Imperial Yeomanry1wooden cross, zinc nameplate
MarandellasParadise Plot Hamilton Capt.07/12/19001900Queensland Artillery1wooden cross, zinc nameplate
MarandellasParadise Plot Kelly J. (Tpr)31/01/19071907Victoria Imperial Bushmen1wooden cross, zinc nameplate
MarandellasParadise Plot Stevens G.M.N. (Pte)29/07/19001900Med staff1wooden cross, zinc nameplate
MarandellasParadise Plot Stoddart,  or Studdart, James H. (Tpr)17/04/18971897Umtali Rifles1KIA at Soswe's kraal, no cross
Melsetter- Herbst, John08/05/18961896settler1 
Melsetter- Herselmann, Gertrude08/05/18971897settler1 
Melsetter- Scholtz, Annie08/03/18911891settler1 
Melsetter- Webster R.W.04/03/18961896settler1accidently shot, buried in Portuguese territory
MelsetterKenilworth Farm Moodie, Dunbar03/04/19011901Pioneer1stone wall round grave
MelsetterMeadows Farm Nel, Daniel18/05/19021902settler1 
MelsetterWaterfall Farm Moodie, Thomas04/05/18961896Pioneer1stone wall round grave
Mrewa- Calcott, Henry R.18/06/18961896Pioneer1no cross
Mrewa- Johnson E.G.18/01/19061906BSAP1heart failure, no cross
Mrewa- Nel C.J.19/08/19031903BSAP1no cross, killed by lion
Mrewa- Phillips, William (Tpr)19/03/18981898BSAP1880 yards WSW of NC's Office
Mrewa- Rees, Benjamin J.27/03/19051905BSAP1blackwater fever, no cross
Mrewa- Trotter H. (Sgt)27/11/18981898BSAP1Blackwater fever, no cross
Mt Darwin- Furnis T.25/06/18971897BSAP1had wooden cross
Mt Darwin- Kemp D.M.25/09/18971897BSAP1had a wooden cross
Mt Darwin- Rose (Tpr)13/07/18961896BSAP1suicide, wooden cross
Que QueFinland Farm Woods Percy17/10/18931893-1second casualty of the 1893 Matabele war, died of natural causes, buried next to Campbell and Otto Berry
Que QueGaika Mine Gooding, William Leemung07/04/19001900-1wood cross, almost illegible, near the Gaika Mine sawmill
Que QueGaika Mine Heanan or Heenan, Carlos O. 07/04/19001900-1wood cross, almost illegible, near the Gaika Mine sawmill
Que QueGaika Mine Topham or Popham, Charles John07/04/19001900-1wood cross, almost illegible, near the Gaika Mine sawmill
Que QueGaika Mine Watson J.S.04/08/18961896-1wood cross, almost illegible
Que QueGlobe & Phoenix Braster John08/04/19071907-1 
Que QueGlobe & Phoenix Dixon G.B.01/12/19041904-1with another unknown grave, 400 yards E of the Police camp
Que QueGlobe & Phoenix Kruger J.08/04/19071907-1 
Que QueGlobe & Phoenix Larney10/04/19061906-1 
Que QueGlobe & Phoenix Smith Lunan (Dr.)04/12/18991899-1 
Que QueGlobe & Phoenix Swanston W.04/12/18991899-1 
Que QueGlobe & Phoenix Tandy A.02/05/19001900-1 
Que QueIron Mine Hill Walker J.L (Trp)13/12/18991899New South Wales Bushmen1 
Que QueQue Que River Brown, Charles (Sgt)17/08/18971897BSAP11/2 mile NW from Que Que River Drift, BSAP memo dated 23/12/1914. Confirmation letter crosses erected
Que QueQue Que River Cox, John (Tpr)30/12/18961896BSAP11/2 mile NW from Que Que River Drift, BSAP memo dated 23/12/1914; confirmation letter in file that cross erected
RusapeHeadlands Farm Hitchman, Henry A.20/06/18961896trader1graves at old Headlands Hotel / Nidzwa's kraal, cross marked Hitchinson BBP
RusapeHeadlands Farm Metcalf, Samuel20/06/18961896trader1graves at old Headlands Hotel / Nidzwa's kraal, cross marked Metcalf BBP
RusapeHeadlands Farm Richards, G.20/06/18961896trader1graves at old Headlands Hotel / Nidzwa's kraal, cross marked Richardson BBP
RusapeSt Faiths Mission FarmSmith Vickers (Pte)03/08/18961896Kings Royal Rifles1KIA at Makoni's kraal, marble cross
RusapeSt Faiths Mission FarmWickham W. (Pte)03/08/18961896Royal Irish Regt.1 
SbyCOE137Armstrong W.Leslie15/03/19001900Native Commissioner1 
SbyCOE46Arthur S.29/03/18931893 1no marker
SbyCOE68Austin E.23/03/18971897 1no marker
SbyCOE98Backhouse W.19/05/18961896 1fever
SbyCOE75Badcock Y.E.30/07/18961896 1no marker, fever
SbyCOE118Ballenden W. (Cpl)25/03/18981898BSAP1fever
SbyCOE1Baxter, Robert (Tpr)26/07/18971897BSAP1Sby cemetery, mortally wounded at Chesumba's stronhold
SbyCOE124Beaumont, Samuel (Tpr)08/05/18971897BSAP1died of fever on patrol near Sby
SbyCOE85Bendeman A.23/05/19071907 1fever
SbyCOE48Bevitt H.23/04/18941894 1wooden cross, dilapidated, fever
SbyCOE9Bilson19/03/18921892 1fever
SbyCOE Botha22/10/18961896 ^buried near the central vault on 28 Jan 1902 with Finucane, Bray and Powell
SbyCOE23Botha James26/03/18931893child1fever
SbyCOE22Botha Louis26/03/18931893child1fever
SbyCOE8Bowler T.18/12/18991899 1fever
SbyCOE Bray22/10/18961896 ^buried near the central vault on 28 Jan 1902 with Botha, Finucane and Powell
SbyCOE126Brett, Edward (Tpr)10/06/18971897Mt Darwin Volunteers1died of fever
SbyCOE66Brewin A.17/11/18941894Pioneer1no marker, well-known as a baker, died from an accident
SbyCOE117Brown C.E.17/12/18961896 1fever
SbyCOE139Campbell George D.19/06/18961896farmer1iron cross defaced. Killed at NC Campbell's camp
SbyCOE5Cherry D.17/05/18961896 1 
SbyCOE28Cook E.W.26/04/18931893 1no marker
SbyCOE122Davis (Cpl)23/04/18971897BSAP1died of fever at Chikwakwa's kraaal
SbyCOE54Dickson20/06/18941894 1 
SbyCOE7Emmrick J.15/05/18981898 1 
SbyCOE113Eyre Herbert H.21/06/18961896Pioneer1Killed at Umvukwes in the rebellion, buried in Sby Pioneer cemetery
SbyCOE25Fairbairn A.27/04/18961896 1no marker
SbyCOE21Faull, William18/06/18961896bricklayer1no marker, killed at Salvation Army farm
SbyCOE49Ferreira Thomas30/04/18991899 1no marker
SbyCOE33Garner E.15/05/18931893 1no marker
SbyCOE116Gray, Harry19/06/18961896miner1iron cross defaced, killed at Gloucester reef
SbyCOE20Gwillim William H.12/07/18961896 1KIA 2nd Hartley patrol, iron cross defaced
SbyCOE57Hansell18/11/18981898 1iron cross defaced
SbyCOE88Hardy L.22/09/19081908 1no marker
SbyCOE97Hastings S.17/05/18961896 1no marker
SbyCOE26Hay H.27/04/18971897Pioneer1no marker
SbyCOE108Hodgson R.M.14/07/18961896Natal Troop1iron cross, died of fever
SbyCOE45Hore R. (Major)14/03/18941894 1wooden cross dilapidated
SbyCOE115Hunt C. (Tpr)28/11/18961896Rhodesia Horse1iron cross defaced, died of fever
SbyCOE72Joss J.16/04/18971897 1no marker, well-known as a bank manager, committed suicide
SbyCOE55Kinsbury20/06/18941894 1no marker
SbyCOE-Kinsland W.15/02/18981898 1no grave number
SbyCOE63Koff Hart14/08/18941894 1 
SbyCOE58Lambert17/08/18971897 1iron cross defaced
SbyCOE31MacVinnie, William (Cpl)12/07/18971897BSAP1iron cross defaced, died of fever at Sby
SbyCOE9Masters Charles28/02/19011901 1no marker
SbyCOE3McGeer Christian (Lieut)20/06/18961896SFF1iron cross defaced
SbyCOE73Moulder J.25/04/18961896 1no marker
SbyCOE86Neville E.28/01/18971897 1no marker
SbyCOE80Newman P.J.21/01/18961896 1iron cross defaced
SbyCOE27O'Connor D.O.27/04/18991899 1no marker
SbyCOE42Orum E.26/01/19071907 1no marker
SbyCOE87Ovenall20/04/18961896 1no marker
SbyCOE128Payne, John William (Tpr)16/06/18971897BSAP1iron cross defaced, accidently shot at Fort Alderson, Mazowe
SbyCOE38Permewan C.E.29/04/19031903 1no marker
SbyCOE77Peverd T.25/11/18951895 1no marker
SbyCOE3Plumer A.31/03/18921892 1no marker
SbyCOE111Postlewaite 16/09/18961896 1no marker
SbyCOE45Potgieter P.H.27/04/18991899 1no marker
SbyCOE Powell22/10/18961896 ^buried near the central vault on 28 Jan 1902 with Botha, Finucane and Bray
SbyCOE4Proctor, R.27/03/18921892 1no marker, the first solicitor in Salisbury
SbyCOE82Read19/03/18981898 1no marker
SbyCOE33Sanderson R.H.15/05/18931893 1no marker
SbyCOE90Shelton E.22/04/18951895 1no marker
SbyCOE4Shepperdson F.18/01/19061906 1no marker
SbyCOE-Simpson W.15/02/19001900 1no grave number
SbyCOE138Smith, Arthur18/06/18961896 1no marker, killed near the Ballyhooley Hotel
SbyCOE89Smith, Peter23/08/18971897 1no marker
SbyCOE-Stall E.A.28/06/18961896 1no grave number
SbyCOE2Stephenson F.L.19/07/19051905Pioneer1no marker
SbyCOE13Timms F.23/12/18971897 1no marker
SbyCOE6Tregenza E.25/04/18921892Pioneer1no marker
SbyCOE79Twentyman R.A.18/03/18961896 1no marker, clerk in chief accountants office, committed suicide
SbyCOE81Wallder F.22/01/18991899 1no marker
SbyCOE125Ward D.31/05/18971897 1no marker
SbyCOE95Watkins Charles H.21/06/18961896hospital orderly1no marker, killed near Deary's store
SbyCOE127Watts Charles E. (Tpr)26/06/18971897BSAP1iron cross defaced, died of fever
SbyCOE37Watts H.B.12/08/18931893 1no marker, employee of EE Homan
SbyCOE16Waugh P.29/11/18951895 1no marker
SbyCOE105Zbovill, Adolph (Cpl)27/06/18961896Natal Troop1iron cross defaced, died of sunstroke in laager
SbyFort Enterprise Connolly (Tpr)14/05/18961896BSAP1Blackwater fever, wooden cross damaged by ants
SbyFort Enterprise Kinlehan14/06/18961896BSAP1Blackwater fever, wooden cross damaged by ants
SbyFort Enterprise Stott   (Sgt)14/06/19041904BSAP1Blackwater fever, wooden cross damaged by ants
SbyNew Finucane, Edward Eustace (Capt)22/10/18961896Sby Rifles1shot in Rebellion near Eyre's farm, buried near the central vault on 28 Jan 1902 with Botha, Bray and Powell
SbyPres120Lamb23/05/19061906 1no marker
SbyRC15Carney, Benjamin21/05/18971897 1no marker
SbyRC51Cowan O.L. (Mrs)23/05/18941894 1no marker, wife of accountant to Johnson, Heany & Borrow, accidental death 
SbyRC100Currie C.25/05/18941894 1 
SbyRC40Davidson18/10/18931893 1no marker
SbyRC60Felon M.29/03/18961896 1no marker
SbyRC-Kennedy17/12/18961896 1no grave number
SbyRC-Lynch L.15/05/18931893 1no grave number
SbyRC114McGowan G.18/11/18961896Rhodesia Horse1no marker, died of fever
SbyRC133Roberts C.T. (Mrs)13/04/18971897 1iron cross defaced, died suddenly after one week in Sby.
SbyRC94Roden J.J.20/03/18961896 1no marker
SbyRC19Roden, Rosina23/02/18941894 1 
SbyRC50Shaw R.J.14/05/18941894 1iron cross defaced
SbyRC13Slater E.13/03/18921892Pioneer1no marker
SbyRC43Stamford, A.18/05/18961896Pioneer1no marker, wounded in the rebellion, died in Sby
SbyRC107Tapsell Jessie13/07/18961896 1no marker
SbyRC52Wallace S.25/05/18941894 1no marker
SbyRC71Watson27/04/19071907 1no marker
SbyRC44Young J.25/04/18961896 1no marker
SbyWes4Amor J.23/03/18981898 1no marker
SbyWes12Applegam, P.31/07/19011901 1fever
SbyWes17Argill, M.20/02/18931893Pioneer1no marker
SbyWes1Austin, R18/05/18971897 1fever
SbyWes76Bezhuidenhout P.H.S.22/01/18991899 1abcess on liver
SbyWes135Burgess, S.C.20/04/18971897 1no marker, fever
SbyWes24Clifton J.20/01/18971897 1no marker, prominent builder, actually Roman Catholic
SbyWes62Cochrane20/10/18961896 1no marker
SbyWes21Golding A.19/03/18931893 1no marker
SbyWes99Henwood C.H.25/05/18961896 1iron cross defaced
SbyWes18Hill J.31/05/18921892Pioneer1Old hand & well known as BSAC bookkepper according to H.M. Hole
SbyWes65Hill, Warwick26/10/18941894 1no marker
SbyWes35Howe John22/10/18921892 1no marker
SbyWes134Koninpe17/10/18991899 1marble cross
SbyWes104Krienke C.16/06/18961896 1no marker
SbyWes61Lantman17/07/18941894 1no marker
SbyWes93Lawrence J.26/04/18961896 1no marker
SbyWes78Marshall D.26/04/18961896 1no marker
SbyWes130McRae J.12/07/18971897Pioneer1iron cross defaced, hotel proprietor, died of fever
SbyWes1Nicholson E.29/04/18971897 1no marker
SbyWes11Purcil (Mrs)15/05/19061906 1 
SbyWes103Rich, Noy14/06/18961896 1no marker
SbyWes109Taylor L.F.28/07/18961896 1no marker
SbyWes83Vanderspuy A.20/01/18971897 1no marker
SbyWes119Vergin D.22/01/19001900 1no marker
Sby 131Mynnie or McVinnie (Cpl)12/07/18971897BSAP1 
ShamvaAbercorn Fletcher, John21/06/18961896BSAP1near the Tafuna Hotel, name was painted on claim plates on a nearby tree
Sinoia- Davidson W. (Cpl)12/06/18981898BSAP1aged 26, see cemetery layout
Sinoia- Mitchell G.G (Tpr)22/12/19001900BSAP1aged 28, see cemetery layout
Sinoia- Muir J. (Tpr)13/04/19001900BSAP1aged 26, see cemetery layout
UmtaliPenhalonga Martin (Dr)13/11/19021902Pioneer1 wood cross near the English Church, at Mr Crawford's old camp
Umtali - OldPremier Estate38Blaine R.D.13/01/19011901BSAP1Poor condition, wood cross
Umtali - OldPremier Estate22Blatch, W.F.06/03/18971897-1buried here, but no grave marker
Umtali - OldPremier Estate7Colquhoun W.13/03/18921892BSAP1buried here, but no grave marker
Umtali - OldPremier Estate3Fitzmaurice George13/04/18971897BSAP1Poor condition, wood cross
Umtali - OldPremier Estate15Jeffries M.J.C11/07/19011901Pioneer1buried here, but no grave marker, also listed under Penhalonga
Umtali - OldPremier Estate23Logan G.A.13/04/18981898BSAP1Poor condition, wood cross
Umtali - OldPremier Estate-Newbolt K.D.06/08/18971897-1Poor condition, wood cross
Umtali - OldPremier Estate5Rundle E. (Dr)13/04/19001900BSAP1Poor condition, wood cross
Umtali - OldPremier Estate-Stanley, George13/06/19001900BSAP1buried here, but no grave marker
Umtali - OldPremier Estate4Tucker, Richard13/07/18961896BSAP1buried here, but no grave marker
         
         
       265 
         

Acknowledgements

Burrett, R.S. 2000 Rhodesia Field Force (Anglo-South African War) Graves in Zimbabwe, with particular reference to Marondera. Heritage of Zimbabwe No 19, P.22-45

Burrett, R.S. 2009 Plumer’s Men: The Rhodesia Regiment and the Northwest Frontier during the Second South African War, 1899-1900. Just Done Productions Publishing, Durban

NAZ GU1/4/1 Loyal Women’s Guild Rhodesia Central Committee Graves Register

NAZ S152 Pioneer and Police Graves Register pre-1923  

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